Regulation Fair Disclosure has had an up and down history in terms of enforcement. It would appear that we are currently in an up cycle and investor relations officers need to have an enhanced sense of awareness about Reg. FD so that they don’t find themselves in the SEC Enforcement Division’s crosshairs.
A bit of history is in order at this point. Reg. FD was enacted by the SEC in August, 2000 in order to prohibit companies from selectively disclosing material nonpublic information to market professionals under circumstances in which it would be reasonably foreseeable that the market professionals would trade on such information. In enacting the regulation, the SEC was attempting to level the investment playing field by assuring that all investors receive material nonpublic information at the same time. Of course, given that investors are constantly looking for an investment edge, usually in the form of information, there were bound to be some built in conflicts in the actual operation of the rule.
In the first years following the adoption of Reg. FD, the SEC brought a number of successful enforcement actions, as if to drive home their point. In these cases, companies had their knuckles rapped because they: told analysts (i) that earnings estimates were “too high” or “aggressive” (In re Raytheon Co., SEC Release No. 34-46897 (Nov. 25, 2002)), (ii) they were entering into a new material supply agreement (In re Secure Computing Corp., SEC Release No. 34-46895 (Nov. 25, 2002)), (iii) through a “combination of words, tone, emphasis and demeanor” indicated that next year’s earnings would decline significantly” (In re Schering-Plough Corporation, SEC Release No. 34-48461 (Sept. 9, 2003)).
During this period the SEC also brought not one, but two enforcement actions against Siebel Systems. After acquiescing in the first enforcement action, Siebel got their back up in the second enforcement action and litigated the issue in Federal District Court, where the SEC met their Waterloo. Basically, the District Court ruled that the SEC was being too aggressive on how they enforced selective disclosure and that companies could make statements in private conversations with analysts that vary from their public statements, so long as the statements were “equivalent in substance” (SEC v. Siebel Systems, Inc., 384 F.Supp.2d 694 (2005)). And there the matter stayed, with the SEC bringing no further enforcement actions.
Until recently, that is. Since September 2009, the SEC has brought three enforcement actions for Reg. FD. In addition to the high profile case against Office Depot which I wrote about several weeks ago (Nudge, nudge, wink, wink – Office Depot and Reg. FD, October 25, 2010), American Commercial Lines and Presstek have been taken to the regulatory woodshed. In September 2009 the SEC settled a civil action against Christopher Black, former CFO of American Commercial Lines for emailing 8 sell side analysts from his home on a Saturday, adding "additional color" to a previous company press release that had stated "2007 second quarter results to look similar to the first quarter". Black's email said that "EPS for the second quarter will likely be in the neighborhood of about a dime below that of the first quarter", which effectively cut in half the previously given guidance. That email cost Mr. Black $25,000, payable to the SEC.
In March of 2010, the SEC settled a Reg. FD enforcement action against Presstek, Inc. for selectively disclosing its poor earnings outlook to a single investment advisor in a phone conversation, who then sold his holdings of approximately 500,000 shares. Although Presstek issued a public announcement about 12 hours later, they still wound up paying a $400,000 fine.
I have no special insights into the inner workings of the SEC, but it appears to me that for whatever reason – new political administration, new head of the enforcement division of the SEC, desire to nail some scalps on the wall following a number of highly publicized enforcement failures – the SEC has decided that Reg. FD will receive renewed enforcement attention. In reality, the underlying reason doesn’t matter. Investor relations officers need to sit up and take notice that the SEC is once again taking a close look at fair disclosure situations. After all, receiving a Wells Notice letter can really ruin your day.