There is a famous Latin saying, “Cui bono?” that was used in Roman trials to help determine the underlying truth of a matter. The phrase translates into “To whose benefit?” and is meant to suggest the possibility of a hidden motive or that the party responsible may not be who it appears to be at first. And so it is with proxy access, recently adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission.
The thinking behind proxy access appears pure at first – to promote shareholder democracy by letting shareholders utilize the corporate proxy statement rather than go through the expense of mounting a proxy campaign of their own. But over the years, I’ve come to be suspicious of anything that drapes itself in motherhood and apple pie, whether it comes from the right or left side of the political spectrum, and so I started to think about who really benefits from proxy access.
As I understand the new rule, shareholders who have held at least 3% of a company’s stock for at least 3 years will be able to nominate up to 25% of a company’s board of directors using the company’s own proxy statement. So I guess this is a move to open up corporate boards to shareholders, but I wonder, which shareholders?
Retail? Certainly not retail shareholders; for the most part they don’t reach the 3% threshold.
Hedge Funds? Unlikely, as the turnover in their portfolios means that it is doubtful they will hold stock for 3 years.
What about activist investors – might this new rule inure to their benefit? Possibly, but not to a large extent. A paper entitled “Hedge Fund Activism, Corporate Governance and Firm Performance” suggests that the median holding period for activist hedge funds is 556 days, or 18.5 months. While this might be longer than you thought, it is still only half the time required by the new rule.
Mutual Funds? I suppose mutual funds might be a beneficiary of the new rule, but I’ve never known them to take an interest in nominating directors.
So who’s left? What entities have the financial muscle to hold 3% of a company’s stock for 3 years? What entities have exhibited a desire to use the proxy system to agitate for their own agendas? The answer is: Foundations and Pension Plans. Of these the bulk of the money is represented by pension plans. Add to that the fact that, according to The Wall Street Journal, four out of five for profit corporations have moved away from pension plans, while unionized employees both in the private sector and government, have fought to retain their fixed benefit pensions and the picture of who benefits starts to become clearer.
Least you were in doubt on the issue, consider also that the SEC adopted the rule in a party line vote, 3 democrats for and 2 republicans against. Suffice it to say that republicans don’t get many campaign contributions (or votes) from union members. Finally, consider two of SEC Chairwoman Shapiro’s key appointments to the Commission staff: senior advisor Kayla Gillian, former general counsel at Calpers, the California state workers pension fund, and Richard Ferlauto, former pension director at AFSCME, the union representing state and local government employees nationwide to the investor advocacy office.
Add it all up and it becomes clear that who benefits under the guise of shareholder democracy for all is really a limited number of unions. Now instead of spending union member’s dues in proxy contests they can lay that cost off on the corporations. It’s a nice deal if you can get it.